Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: how viral infections modulate beta cell function

Clin Exp Immunol. 2012 Apr;168(1):24-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2011.04556.x.


Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a multi-factorial immune-mediated disease characterized by the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic islet beta cells in genetically susceptible individuals. Epidemiological evidence has also documented the constant rise in the incidence of T1DM worldwide, with viral infections representing one of the candidate environmental risk factors identified by several independent studies. In fact, epidemiological data showed that T1DM incidence increases after epidemics due to enteroviruses and that enteroviral RNA can be detected in the blood of >50% of T1DM patients at the time of disease onset. Furthermore, both in-vitro and ex-vivo studies have shown that viruses can infect pancreatic beta cells with consequent effects ranging from functional damage to cell death.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / virology*
  • Enterovirus / immunology
  • Enterovirus / pathogenicity
  • Enterovirus Infections / complications
  • Enterovirus Infections / immunology*
  • Enterovirus Infections / virology
  • Humans
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / immunology
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / metabolism*
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / virology*
  • Mice
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / biosynthesis
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism
  • RNA, Viral / blood
  • Rats


  • RNA, Viral
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II