Increased levels of antibodies to gliadin, which is derived from the wheat protein gluten, have been reported in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in cross-sectional studies. We examined longitudinally the levels of antibody reactivity to gliadin in acute mania. The sample included 60 individuals assessed during a hospital stay for acute mania, 39 at a 6-month follow-up, and a sample of 143 non-psychiatric controls. Antibodies to gliadin were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The relationship of the antibodies to the clinical course of mania was analyzed by the use of regression models. Individuals with mania had significantly increased levels of IgG antibodies to gliadin, but not other markers of celiac disease, at baseline compared with controls in multivariate analyses. However, these levels were not significantly different from those of controls at the six month follow-up. Among the individuals with mania, elevated levels at follow-up were significantly associated with re-hospitalization in the 6-month follow-up period. The monitoring and control of gluten sensitivity may have significant effects on the management of individuals hospitalized with acute mania.
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