Critically ill patients often have deranged hemodynamics. Physical examination, central venous pressure, and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure ("wedge") have been shown to be unreliable at assessing volume status, volume responsiveness, and adequacy of cardiac output in critically ill patients. Thus, invasive and noninvasive cardiac output monitoring is a core feature of evaluating and managing a hemodynamically unstable patient. In this review, we discuss the various techniques and options of cardiac output assessment available to clinicians for hemodynamic monitoring in the intensive care unit. Issues related to patients with kidney disease, such as timing and location of arterial and central venous catheters and the approach to hemodynamics in patients treated by long-term dialysis also are discussed.
Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.