1. Conjugated metabolites were isolated from the urine of patients receiving amitriptyline treatment using a combination of solid-phase extraction, h.p.l.c. and t.l.c. 2. By n.m.r. and mass spectrometry, N-glucuronides of E- and Z-10-hydroxyamitriptyline and of trans-10,11-dihydroxyamitriptyline were identified in addition to the previously described O-glucuronides of E- and Z-10-hydroxyamitriptyline and -nortriptyline and amitriptyline-N-glucuronide. 3. The quaternary ammonium glucuronides proved to be resistant to acid hydrolysis, but could be cleaved enzymatically. 4. In urine samples from three patients, 35-60% of conjugated 10-hydroxyamitriptyline was found in the form of N-glucuronides. 5. A volunteer given an i.v. infusion of amitriptyline-N-glucuronide excreted E- and Z-10-hydroxyamitriptyline-N-glucuronide; following ingestion of E-10-hydroxyamitriptyline its N-glucuronide could be measured in urine.