The present study aimed at the predictive value of early release patterns of protein S-100B and neuron specific enolase (NSE) in patients with traumatic brain injury. We investigated 69 patients who were admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery following traumatic brain injury. Both NSE and S-100B serum concentrations during the first three days after admission were highly and significantly correlated with Glasgow Coma and Coma Remission Scale scores at the respective blood sampling times as well as 2 weeks later. Signs of intracranial pathology as evaluated by CCT or MRI scans showed no association with NSE or S-100B release patterns. Our data support the hypothesis that NSE and protein S-100B are useful and sensitive neurobiochemical markers for the early clinical outcome of traumatic brain injury.