What do we know about chronic kidney disease in India: first report of the Indian CKD registry

BMC Nephrol. 2012 Mar 6;13:10. doi: 10.1186/1471-2369-13-10.


Background: There are no national data on the magnitude and pattern of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in India. The Indian CKD Registry documents the demographics, etiological spectrum, practice patterns, variations and special characteristics.

Methods: Data was collected for this cross-sectional study in a standardized format according to predetermined criteria. Of the 52,273 adult patients, 35.5%, 27.9%, 25.6% and 11% patients came from South, North, West and East zones respectively.

Results: The mean age was 50.1 ± 14.6 years, with M:F ratio of 70:30. Patients from North Zone were younger and those from the East Zone older. Diabetic nephropathy was the commonest cause (31%), followed by CKD of undetermined etiology (16%), chronic glomerulonephritis (14%) and hypertensive nephrosclerosis (13%). About 48% cases presented in Stage V; they were younger than those in Stages III-IV. Diabetic nephropathy patients were older, more likely to present in earlier stages of CKD and had a higher frequency of males; whereas those with CKD of unexplained etiology were younger, had more females and more frequently presented in Stage V. Patients in lower income groups had more advanced CKD at presentation. Patients presenting to public sector hospitals were poorer, younger, and more frequently had CKD of unknown etiology.

Conclusions: This report confirms the emergence of diabetic nephropathy as the pre-eminent cause in India. Patients with CKD of unknown etiology are younger, poorer and more likely to present with advanced CKD. There were some geographic variations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Distribution
  • Comorbidity
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / mortality*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / mortality*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Registries / statistics & numerical data*
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Social Class
  • Survival Analysis
  • Survival Rate