Epigenome alterations are characteristic of nearly all human malignancies and include changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs (miRNAs). However, what induces these epigenetic alterations in cancer is largely unknown and their mechanistic role in prostate tumorigenesis is just beginning to be evaluated. Identification of the epigenetic modifications involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer will not only identify novel therapeutic targets but also prognostic and diagnostic markers. This review will focus on the use of epigenetic modifications as biomarkers for prostate cancer.
Keywords: Biomarkers; DNA methylation; Epigenetics; Histone modifications; MicroRNAs; Prostate cancer.
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