The accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in the brain is a critical hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. This high cerebral Aβ concentration may be partly caused by impaired clearance of Aβ across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) are involved in the efflux of Aβ across the BBB. We hypothesized that other ABC proteins, such as members of the G subfamily, are also involved in the BBB clearance of Aβ. We therefore investigated the roles of ABCG2 (BCRP) and ABCG4 in the efflux of [3H] Aβ1-40 from HEK293 cells stably transfected with human ABCG2 or mouse abcg4. We showed that ABCG2 and Abcg4 mediate the cellular efflux of [3H] Aβ1-40. In addition, probucol fully inhibited the efflux of [3H] Aβ1-40 from HEK293-abcg4 cells. Using the in situ brain perfusion technique, we showed that GF120918 (dual inhibitor of Abcb1 and Abcg2) strongly enhanced the uptake (Clup, μl/g/s) of [3H] Aβ1-40 by the brains of Abcb1-deficient mice, but not by the brains of Abcb1/Abcg2-deficient mice, suggesting that Abcg2 is involved in the transport of Aβ at the mouse BBB. Perfusing the brains of Abcb1/Abcg2- and Abca1-deficient mice with [3H] Aβ1-40 plus probucol significantly increased the Clup of Aβ. This suggests that a probucol-sensitive transporter that is different from Abca1, Abcb1, and Abcg2 is involved in the brain efflux of Aβ. We suggest that this probucol-sensitive transporter is Abcg4. We conclude that Abcg4 acts in concert with Abcg2 to efflux Aβ from the brain across the BBB.