The bacterial community diversity of highway runoff-contaminated sediment that had undergone 19 years of acetate-based de-icing agents addition followed by three years of acetate-free de-icing agents was investigated. Analysis of 26 sediment samples from two drilled soil cores by means of 16S rDNA PCR generated 3,402 clones, indicating an overall high bacterial diversity, with no prominent members within the communities. Sequence analyses provided evidences that each sediment sample displayed a specific structure bacterial community. Proteobacteria-affiliated clones (58% and 43% for the two boreholes) predominated in all samples, followed by Actinobacteria (12% and 16%), Firmicutes (7% and 12%) and Chloroflexi (7% and 11%). The subsurface geochemistry complemented the molecular methods to further distinguish ambient and contaminant plume zones. Principal component analysis revealed that the levels of Fe(II) and dissolved oxygen were strongly correlated with bacterial communities. At elevated Fe(II) levels, sequences associated with anaerobic bacteria were detected in high levels. As iron levels declined and oxygen levels increased below the plume bottom, there was a gradual shift in the community structure toward the increase of aerobic bacteria.