The growth of 84 patients with hypochondroplasia (56 male, 28 female) was studied. A wide spectrum of severity was found from quite severe short limbed dwarfism to short apparently normal prepubertal children who manifested disproportion only at puberty when growth failed. The onset of puberty was at the normal time but the pubertal growth spurt appeared not to materialize and it is this lack which resulted in severely compromised adult heights of 145-165 cm in boys and 133-151 cm in girls. Twenty (12 M, 8 F) hypochondroplastic children aged between 4.3 and 12.8 years were recruited to a study of the effects of biosynthetic growth hormone. All had normal growth hormone responses (greater than 15 mU/l) to a pharmacological test of growth hormone secretion. Biosynthetic growth hormone in doses between 12-32 mu/m2/week produced a significant acceleration in height velocity standard deviation score (SDS) for chronological age (CA) from a pretreatment mean of -1.66 (SD 1.36) to +1.62 (SD 1.52) (p less than 0.001). Significant increases were also observed in the height SDS for bone age (BA), sitting height (SH) SDS and subischial leg length (SILL) SDS. A longer period will be required to assess the effect of treatment on adult height prognosis.