Objective: To evaluate efficacy and safety of pegloticase, approved by the Food and Drug Administration in September 2010 for treatment of patients with chronic treatment-refractory gout.
Data sources: Literature searches were conducted using PubMed (1948-January 2012), TOXLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-January 2012), and Google Scholar using the terms pegloticase, puricase, PEG-uricase, gout, uricase, and Krystexxa. Results were limited to English-language publications. References from selected articles were reviewed to identify additional citations.
Study selection and data extraction: Studies evaluating the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of pegloticase for the treatment of chronic treatment-refractory gout were included.
Data synthesis: Pegloticase represents a novel intravenous treatment option for patients who have chronic gout refractory to other available treatments. Pegloticase is a recombinant uricase and achieves therapeutic effects by catalyzing oxidation of uric acid to allantoin, resulting in decreased uric acid concentrations. Results of published trials demonstrate the ability of pegloticase to maintain uric acid concentrations below 7 mg/dL in patients with chronic gout. Data supporting reduction of gout flares are limited. Pegloticase is well tolerated but associated with gout flares and infusion reactions. Other adverse events include nausea, dizziness, and back pain. During Phase 3 trials, 2 patients in the pegloticase biweekly group and 1 in the monthly group experienced heart failure exacerbation; another patient in the monthly group experienced a nonfatal myocardial infarction. Providers should exercise caution before administering pegloticase to patients with cardiovascular disease. The cost burden and safety profile may limit its use in practice, in addition to limited data available to support decreases in patient-centered outcomes (eg, gouty attacks).
Conclusions: Pegloticase is an effective option for patients with symptomatic gout for whom current uric acid-lowering therapies are ineffective or contraindicated.