Benefits and effectiveness of administering pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine with seasonal influenza vaccine: an approach for policymakers

Am J Public Health. 2012 Apr;102(4):596-605. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300512. Epub 2012 Feb 16.


For the influenza pandemic of 2009-2010, countries responded to the direct threat of influenza but may have missed opportunities and strategies to limit secondary pneumococcal infections. Delivering both vaccines together can potentially increase pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) immunization rates and prevent additional hospitalizations and mortality in the elderly and other high-risk groups. We used PubMed to review the literature on the concomitant use of PPV23 with seasonal influenza vaccines. Eight of 9 clinical studies found that a concomitant program conferred clinical benefits. The 2 studies that compared the cost-effectiveness of different strategies found concomitant immunization to be more cost-effective than either vaccine given alone. Policymakers should consider a stepwise strategy to reduce the burden of secondary pneumococcal infections during seasonal and pandemic influenza outbreaks.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Administrative Personnel
  • Aged
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Drug Combinations
  • Humans
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Influenza, Human / epidemiology
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control*
  • Middle Aged
  • Pneumococcal Infections / epidemiology
  • Pneumococcal Infections / prevention & control*
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vaccination / methods


  • Drug Combinations
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines