Effectiveness of dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE)

Br J Nurs. 2012;21(4):224, 226-28, 230-2. doi: 10.12968/bjon.2012.21.4.224.


This literature review examines the evidence base behind Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE), an educational programme for the self-management of type 1 diabetes. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), British Nursing Index (BNI), Embase and Medline databases were accessed to locate relevant studies. Twelve studies were found to meet the review criteria. These provide evidence that DAFNE can help people with type 1 diabetes to achieve better glycaemic control and improve their quality of life. However, DAFNE-induced improvements in glycaemic control tend to reduce as time elapses since programme attendance and literature on the long-term effectiveness is limited. More research is needed to determine whether the benefits last in the long term and to identify how its positive effects can be maintained.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / diet therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / nursing*
  • Diet, Diabetic*
  • Glycemic Index / physiology
  • Humans
  • Patient Education as Topic / methods*
  • Self Care / methods*