Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM 1800 MHz) on immature and mature rats

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2012 Jun;80:140-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.02.028. Epub 2012 Mar 9.


We investigated the cytogenotoxic effects of high frequency electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) for 45 day and the effect of a recovery period of 15 day after exposure to EMF on bone marrow cells of immature and mature rats. The animals in treatment groups were exposed to 1800 MHz EMF at SAR of 0.37 W/kg and 0.49 W/kg for 2h/day for 45 day. Two recovery groups were kept for a recovery period of 15 day without EMF after exposure to HF-EMF. Two control groups for both immature and mature rats were also included. Significant differences were also observed in chromosome aberrations (CA), micronucleus (MN) frequency, mitotic index (MI) and ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in all treatment groups. The cytogenotoxic damage was more remarkable in immature rats and, the recovery period did not improve this damage in immature rats. Because much higher and irreversible cytogenotoxic damage was observed in immature rats than in mature rats, further studies are needed to understand effects of EMF on DNA damage and DNA repair, and to determine safe limits for environment and human, especially for children.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Marrow Cells / radiation effects
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • DNA Damage
  • Electromagnetic Fields / adverse effects*
  • Erythrocytes / radiation effects
  • Mutagenicity Tests
  • Radioactive Pollutants / toxicity*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar


  • Radioactive Pollutants