Differential effect of baseline adiponectin on all-cause mortality in hemodialysis patients depending on initial body mass index. Long-term follow-up data of 4.5 years

J Ren Nutr. 2013 Jan;23(1):45-56. doi: 10.1053/j.jrn.2011.12.007. Epub 2012 Mar 9.

Abstract

Objectives: We sought to investigate the interaction of adiponectin levels and body mass index (BMI) for predicting all-cause mortality in a cohort of hemodialysis (HD) patients.

Design: Longitudinal, observational cohort study.

Setting: HD unit.

Subjects: Sixty patients (mean age: 64 ± 13 years, 39 men) with end-stage renal disease on maintenance HD followed up for 4.5 years represented the prospective study cohort.

Intervention: Associations between baseline plasma adiponectin levels and initial BMI with all-cause mortality were assessed taking into account the assumption of nonlinear correlations. The association between adiponectin, BMI, and serum levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) with survival was determined cross-sectionally.

Main outcome measure: All-cause mortality.

Results: Nonlinear survival modeling showed that there was a U-shaped association of BMI with all-cause mortality, whereas there was an inverse U-shaped association for plasma adiponectin levels. Using a BMI of 24 kg/m(2) as a cutoff, an interaction effect of BMI on the association between adiponectin and mortality was observed (P = .045). In participants with BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2), each 15 μg/mL increase in plasma adiponectin levels was associated with a decreased hazard of death (hazard ratio: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.99) in unadjusted analysis. In HD patients with BMI < 24 kg/m(2), no significant association was observed between adiponectin and mortality (P = .989). Cross-sectional analysis showed that in the subgroup of patients in whom the protective effect of adiponectin was observed (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2)), a positive linear association existed between adiponectin and IL-10 levels (r = 0.345, P = .027) as well as a negative association with IL-6 levels (r = -0.322, P = .040). No association was observed in patients with BMI < 24 kg/m(2), neither with IL-10 nor with IL-6.

Conclusions: Obesity possibly modifies the effect of adiponectin on all-cause mortality in HD patients, thus explaining the published conflicting results in recent literature regarding the association of plasma adiponectin levels and mortality in chronic kidney disease patients.

MeSH terms

  • Adiponectin / blood*
  • Aged
  • Body Mass Index*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-10 / blood
  • Interleukin-6 / blood
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / blood
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / mortality
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Renal Dialysis / mortality*

Substances

  • Adiponectin
  • Interleukin-6
  • Interleukin-10