The paralogous transcription factors ChREBP and MondoA, together with their common binding partner Mlx, have emerged as key mediators of intracellular glucose sensing. By regulating target genes involved in glycolysis and lipogenesis, they mediate metabolic adaptation to changing glucose levels. As disturbed glucose homeostasis plays a central role in human metabolic diseases and as cancer cells often display altered glucose metabolism, better understanding of cellular glucose sensing will likely uncover new therapeutic opportunities. Here we review the regulation, function and evolutionary conservation of the ChREBP/MondoA-Mlx glucose sensing system and discuss possible directions for future research.
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