The authors report a study of 140 patients presenting with a non-allergic respiratory tract disease (121 cases of asthma--19 cases of spasmodic cough). Gastro-oesophageal reflux was detected by 24-hour pHmetry in 86 of these patients. In 34 of them (i.e. 40% of cases), the gastro-oesophageal reflux appeared to be responsible for the initial respiratory tract symptoms. These 34 patients were submitted to a therapeutic trial of high dose anti-H2 therapy for at least two months. Only those patients in whom a marked improvement or even complete resolution of the respiratory tracts symptoms was observed underwent anti-reflux surgery. Out of the 13 patients undergoing surgery, there were two failures and 11 good results after a follow-up of more than 18 months.