Multiple sclerosis

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012:724:222-38. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-0653-2_17.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, complex neurological disease with a variable clinical course in which several pathophysiological mechanisms such as axonal/ neuronal damage, demyelination, inflammation, gliosis, remyelination and repair, oxidative injury and excitotoxicity, alteration of the immune system as well as biochemical disturbances and disruption of blood-brain barrier are involved.(1,2) Exacerbations of MS symptoms reflect inflammatory episodes, while the neurodegenerative aspects of gliosis and axonal loss result in the progression of disability. The precise aetiology of MS is not yet known, although epidemiological data indicate that it arises from a complex interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors.(3) In this chapter the brain structures and processes involved in immunopathogenesis of MS are presented. Additionally, clinical phenotypes and biomarkers of MS are showed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood-Brain Barrier / pathology
  • Blood-Brain Barrier / physiopathology
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Brain / pathology*
  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Multiple Sclerosis / metabolism
  • Multiple Sclerosis / pathology*
  • Neuroglia / pathology
  • Neurons / pathology
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism


  • Cytokines
  • Nitric Oxide