Noninvasive quantitative MRI methods, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), can offer insights into the structure-function relationships in human developmental brain disorders. In this article, we quantified the macrostructural and microstructural attributes of the corpus callosum (CC) in children with dyslexia and in typically developing readers of comparable age and gender. Diffusion anisotropy, and mean, radial and axial diffusivities of cross-sectional CC subregions were computed using a validated DTI methodology. The normalized posterior CC area was enlarged in children with dyslexia relative to that in typically developing children. Moreover, the callosal microstructural attributes, such as the mean diffusivity of the posterior middle sector of the CC, correlated significantly with measures of word reading and reading comprehension. Reading group differences in fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity were observed in the posterior CC (CC5). This study demonstrates the utility of regional DTI measurements of the CC in understanding the neurobiology of reading disorders.
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.