Impact of treatment strategy on outcomes in patients with candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis: a patient-level quantitative review of randomized trials

Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Apr;54(8):1110-22. doi: 10.1093/cid/cis021. Epub 2012 Mar 12.


Background: Invasive candidiasis (IC) is an important healthcare-related infection, with increasing incidence and a crude mortality exceeding 50%. Numerous treatment options are available yet comparative studies have not identified optimal therapy.

Methods: We conducted an individual patient-level quantitative review of randomized trials for treatment of IC and to assess the impact of host-, organism-, and treatment-related factors on mortality and clinical cure. Studies were identified by searching computerized databases and queries of experts in the field for randomized trials comparing the effect of ≥2 antifungals for treatment of IC. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to determine factors associated with patient outcomes.

Results: Data from 1915 patients were obtained from 7 trials. Overall mortality among patients in the entire data set was 31.4%, and the rate of treatment success was 67.4%. Logistic regression analysis for the aggregate data set identified increasing age (odds ratio [OR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.02; P = .02), the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.08-1.14; P = .0001), use of immunosuppressive therapy (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.18-2.44; P = .001), and infection with Candida tropicalis (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.11-2.39; P = .01) as predictors of mortality. Conversely, removal of a central venous catheter (CVC) (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, .35-.72; P = .0001) and treatment with an echinocandin antifungal (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, .45-.94; P = .02) were associated with decreased mortality. Similar findings were observed for the clinical success end point.

Conclusions: Two treatment-related factors were associated with improved survival and greater clinical success: use of an echinocandin and removal of the CVC.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antifungal Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Candidiasis, Invasive / drug therapy*
  • Catheterization, Central Venous / adverse effects
  • Echinocandins / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Withholding Treatment


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Echinocandins