Prevalence of water pipe use and its correlates in Iranian women of reproductive age in Tehran: a population-based study

Med Princ Pract. 2012;21(4):340-4. doi: 10.1159/000336583. Epub 2012 Mar 9.


Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of water pipe smoking and its associated sociodemographic factors among Iranian women of reproductive age in Tehran.

Subjects and methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional study of 1,359 Iranian women aged 15-49 years. The multistage random cluster technique was used to obtain the sample. Questionnaire-based interviews with questions relating to water pipe smoking and sociodemographic variables were used to collect the data. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyse the relationships between the dependent variable (water pipe smoking) and the independent variables (sociodemographic characteristics).

Results: The prevalence of water pipe smoking was 6.3% among Iranian women. Water pipe smoking was more likely in the age range of 15-24 years [odds ratio (OR) = 4.8, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 2.7-8.6] compared to the age range of 35 years or older, in women with a university education (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-3.0) compared to women with a high-school diploma or lower, and in women with an average crowding index score (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.1-10.6) compared to women living in small families.

Conclusion: The findings of this study show that Iranian women with a university education and the younger age group (15-24 years) were at most risk of water pipe smoking. The findings of this study about associated factors may contribute to the development of efficient health promotion programmes for the prevention and cessation of water pipe smoking.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Body Weights and Measures
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iran / epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Women's Health
  • Young Adult