Commonalities and differences in correlates of depressive symptoms in men and women with heart failure

Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2012 Sep;11(3):356-65. doi: 10.1177/1474515112438010. Epub 2012 Mar 13.


Objective: (i) To compare the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms between men and women enrolled in a large heart failure (HF) registry. (ii) To determine gender differences in predictors of depressive symptoms from demographic, behavioral, clinical, and psychosocial factors in HF patients.

Methods: In 622 HF patients (70% male, 61 ± 13 years, 59% NYHA class III/IV), depressive symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Potential correlates were age, ethnicity, education, marital and financial status, smoking, exercise, body mass index (BMI), HF etiology, NYHA class, comorbidities, functional capacity, anxiety, and perceived control. To identify gender-specific correlates of depressive symptoms, separate logistic regression models were built by gender.

Results: Correlates of depressive symptoms in men were financial status (p = 0.027), NYHA (p = 0.001); functional capacity (p < 0.001); health perception (p = 0.043); perceived control (p = 0.002) and anxiety (p < 0.001). Correlates of depressive symptoms in women were BMI (p = 0.003); perceived control (p = 0.013) and anxiety (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: In HF patients, lowering depressive symptoms may require gender-specific interventions focusing on weight management in women and improving perceived functional capacity in men. Both men and women with HF may benefit from anxiety reduction and increased control.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Aged
  • Body Weight
  • Depression / complications*
  • Female
  • Heart Failure / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Registries
  • Regression Analysis
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sex Factors
  • Statistics as Topic
  • Surveys and Questionnaires