Transcriptional integration of metabolism by the nuclear sterol-activated receptors LXR and FXR

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2012 Mar 14;13(4):213-24. doi: 10.1038/nrm3312.


Nuclear receptors are integrators of hormonal and nutritional signals, mediating changes to metabolic pathways within the body. Given that modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism has been linked to diseases including type 2 diabetes, obesity and atherosclerosis, a greater understanding of pathways that regulate metabolism in physiology and disease is crucial. The liver X receptors (LXRs) and the farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) are activated by oxysterols and bile acids, respectively. Mounting evidence indicates that these nuclear receptors have essential roles, not only in the regulation of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism but also in the integration of sterol, fatty acid and glucose metabolism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Atherosclerosis / metabolism
  • Bile Acids and Salts / metabolism
  • Cholesterol / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Lipid Metabolism / physiology*
  • Liver X Receptors
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Orphan Nuclear Receptors / genetics
  • Orphan Nuclear Receptors / metabolism*
  • RNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / genetics
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism*
  • Sterols / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Bile Acids and Salts
  • Fxr1h protein, mouse
  • Liver X Receptors
  • Orphan Nuclear Receptors
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Sterols
  • farnesoid X-activated receptor
  • Cholesterol
  • Glucose