A major challenge in neuroscience is linking behavior to the collective activity of neural assemblies. Understanding of input-output relationships of neurons and circuits requires methods with the spatial selectivity and temporal resolution appropriate for mechanistic analysis of neural ensembles in the behaving animal, i.e. recording of representatively large samples of isolated single neurons. Ensemble monitoring of neuronal activity has progressed remarkably in the past decade in both small and large-brained animals, including human subjects. Multiple-site recording with silicon-based devices are particularly effective because of their scalability, small volume and geometric design. Here, we describe methods for recording multiple single neurons and local field potential in behaving rodents, using commercially available micro-machined silicon probes with custom-made accessory components. There are two basic options for interfacing silicon probes to preamplifiers: printed circuit boards and flexible cables. Probe supplying companies (http://www.neuronexustech.com/; http://www.sbmicrosystems.com/; http://www.acreo.se/) usually provide the bonding service and deliver probes bonded to printed circuit boards or flexible cables. Here, we describe the implantation of a 4-shank, 32-site probe attached to flexible polyimide cable, and mounted on a movable microdrive. Each step of the probe preparation, microdrive construction and surgery is illustrated so that the end user can easily replicate the process.