Graphene-based chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer for homogeneous immunoassay

ACS Nano. 2012 Apr 24;6(4):2978-83. doi: 10.1021/nn300684d. Epub 2012 Mar 21.


We report on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) between graphene nanosheets and chemiluminescent donors. In contrast to fluorescence resonance energy transfer, CRET occurs via nonradiative dipole-dipole transfer of energy from a chemiluminescent donor to a suitable acceptor molecule without an external excitation source. We designed a graphene-based CRET platform for homogeneous immunoassay of C-reactive protein (CRP), a key marker for human inflammation and cardiovascular diseases, using a luminol/hydrogen peroxide chemiluminescence (CL) reaction catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase. According to our results, anti-CRP antibody conjugated to graphene nanosheets enabled the capture of CRP at the concentration above 1.6 ng mL(-1). In the CRET platform, graphene played a key role as an energy acceptor, which was more efficient than graphene oxide, while luminol served as a donor to graphene, triggering the CRET phenomenon between luminol and graphene. The graphene-based CRET platform was successfully applied to the detection of CRP in human serum samples in the range observed during acute inflammatory stress.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • C-Reactive Protein / analysis
  • Energy Transfer*
  • Graphite / chemistry*
  • Hepatocytes / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunoassay / methods*
  • Luminescent Measurements / methods*
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Conformation


  • Graphite
  • C-Reactive Protein