Stability of anthocyanins in frozen and freeze-dried raspberries during long-term storage: in relation to glass transition

J Food Sci. 2011 Aug;76(6):E414-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02249.x. Epub 2011 Jul 5.


Anthocyanins, natural plant pigments in the flavonoid group, are responsible for the red color and some of the nutraceutical benefits of raspberries. This study explores anthocyanin degradation in frozen and freeze-dried raspberries during storage in relation to glass transition temperatures. Frozen raspberries were stored at -80, -35, and -20 °C, while freeze-dried raspberries were stored at selected water activity (a(w)) values ranging from 0.05 to 0.75 at room temperature (23 °C) for more than a year. The characteristic glass transition temperatures (T'(g)) of raspberries with high water content and glass transition temperature (T(g)) of raspberries with small water content were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter. The pH differential method was used to determine the quantity of anthocyanins in frozen and freeze-dried raspberries at selected time intervals. The total anthocyanins in raspberries fluctuated during 378 d of storage at -20 and -35, and -80 °C. Anthocyanin degradation in freeze-dried raspberries ranged from 27% to 32% and 78% to 89% at a(w) values of 0.05 to 0.07 and 0.11 to 0.43, respectively, after 1 y. Anthocyanins were not detectable in freeze-dried raspberries stored at a(w) values of 0.53 to 0.75 after 270 d. First order and Weibull equations were used to fit the anthocyanin degradation in freeze-dried raspberries. The 1(st)-order rate constant (k) of anthocyanin degradation ranged from 0.003 to 0.023 days⁻¹ at the selected water activities. Significant anthocyanin degradation occurred in both the glassy and rubbery states of freeze-dried raspberries during long-term storage. However, the rate of anthocyanin degradation in freeze-dried raspberries stored in the glassy state was significantly smaller than the rate of anthocyanin degradation in the rubbery state.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anthocyanins / analysis
  • Anthocyanins / chemistry*
  • Calorimetry, Differential Scanning
  • Food Storage*
  • Food, Preserved / analysis*
  • Freeze Drying
  • Frozen Foods / analysis
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Functional Food / analysis*
  • Half-Life
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Kinetics
  • Models, Chemical
  • Pigmentation
  • Rosaceae / chemistry*
  • Transition Temperature
  • Washington
  • Water / analysis


  • Anthocyanins
  • Water