In vitro and in vivo antihyperglycemic effect of 2 amadori rearrangement compounds, arginyl-fructose and arginyl-fructosyl-glucose

J Food Sci. 2011 Oct;76(8):H188-93. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02361.x.


During the heat processing of raw ginseng to produce red ginseng, amino acid derivatives such as arginyl-fructose (AF) and arginyl-fructosyl-glucose (AFG) are formed at high levels, through amadori rearrangement, the early step of Maillard reaction, from arginine and glucose or maltose, respectively. However, very limited information is available about the effect of the structural difference between AF and AFG on various biological activities. This is the first report of the mode of action and effect of AF and AFG on the type 2 diabetes management related inhibition of postprandial hyperglycemia in vitro and in animal model. In our previous study, standards AF and AFG were chemically synthesized and in this study their inhibitory activities against rat intestinal α-glucosidases and porcine pancreatic α-amylase were investigated in vitro. The IC(50) value of the in vitro inhibitory activity of AF and AFG on rat intestinal sucrase was high and in similar levels (6.40 and 6.20 mM, respectively). Additionally, a mild pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity was observed, with IC(50) values 36.30 and 37.60 mM for AF and AFG, respectively. The effect of AF and AFG on the postprandial blood glucose increase after meal was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats fed on starch or sucrose meals. Both amadori compounds significantly reduced the postprandial blood glucose levels after starch or sucrose loading. These results indicate that AF and AFG, Maillard reaction products, may have antidiabetic effect by suppressing carbohydrate absorption in the gastrointestinal level, and thereby reducing the postprandial increase of blood glucose.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects*
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
  • Fructose
  • Glucose
  • Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors
  • Hyperglycemia / drug therapy
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Intestinal Absorption / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Panax / chemistry
  • Pancreatic alpha-Amylases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Postprandial Period / drug effects
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Starch
  • Sucrase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Sucrase / metabolism
  • Sucrose
  • Swine


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Plant Extracts
  • Fructose
  • Sucrose
  • Starch
  • Pancreatic alpha-Amylases
  • Sucrase
  • Glucose