Antimicrobial stewardship--the state of the art in 2011: focus on outcome and methods

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2012 Apr;33(4):331-7. doi: 10.1086/664755.


Antimicrobial stewardship programs attempt to optimize prescribing of these drugs to benefit both current and future patients. Recent regulatory and other incentives have led to widespread adoption of such programs. Measurements of the success of these programs have focused primarily on process measures. However, evaluation of outcome measures will be needed to ensure sustainability of these efforts. Outcome efforts to date provide some evidence for improved care of individual patients, some evidence for minimizing emergence of resistance, and ample evidence for cost reduction. Attention to evaluation methods must be increased to provide convincing evidence for the continuation of such programs.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents / adverse effects
  • Anti-Infective Agents / economics
  • Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Cost Control
  • Drug Costs
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial
  • Drug Utilization
  • Drug Utilization Review* / methods
  • Drug Utilization Review* / organization & administration
  • Drug Utilization Review* / standards
  • Humans
  • Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care
  • Patient Safety


  • Anti-Infective Agents