Background: Oral meal consumption increases glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) release which maintains euglycemia by increasing insulin secretion. This effect is exaggerated during short-term follow-up of Roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB). We examined the durability of this effect in patient with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) >10 years after RYGB.
Methods: GLP-1 response to a mixed meal in the 10-year post-RYGB group (n = 5) was compared to lean (n = 9), obese (n = 6), and type 2 diabetic (n = 10) controls using a cross-sectional study design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate GLP-1 response to mixed meal consumption from 0 to 300 min, 0-20 min, 20-60 min, and 60-300 min, respectively. Weight, insulin resistance, and T2DM were also assessed.
Results: GLP-1 response 0-300 min in the 10-year post-RYGB showed a statistically significant overall difference (p = 0.01) compared to controls. Furthermore, GLP-1 response 0-20 min in the 10-year post-RYGB group showed a very rapid statistically significant rise (p = 0.035) to a peak of 40 pM. GLP-1 response between 20 and 60 min showed a rapid statistically significant (p = 0.041) decline in GLP-1 response from ~40 pM to 10 pM. GLP-1 response in the 10-year post-RYGB group from 60 to 300 min showed no statistically significant difference from controls. BMI, HOMA, and fasting serum glucose before and >10 years after RYGB changed from 59.9 → 40.4, 8.7 → 0.88, and 155.2 → 87.6 mg/dl, respectively, and were statistically significant (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: An exaggerated GLP-1 response was noted 10 years after RYGB, strongly suggesting a durability of this effect. This phenomenon may play a key role in maintaining type 2 diabetes remission and weight loss after RYGB.