Cognitive impairment and dementia after intracerebral hemorrhage: a cross-sectional study of a hospital-based series

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013 Jan;22(1):80-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2011.06.013. Epub 2012 Mar 14.


Background: Frequencies of cognitive impairment and dementia have not been assessed in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The objective of this study was to determine the frequencies and patterns of cognitive impairment and dementia in a cross-sectional study of consecutive patients hospitalized in a single university medical center.

Methods: Of 183 consecutive patients hospitalized between 2002 and 2006, 80 survivors were contacted and 78 were included (mean time since stroke 40 months). Thirty patients were scored with the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in a telephone interview, and 48 underwent a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological assessment.

Results: Dementia was observed in 18 of 78 patients (23%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 13-32%) and cognitive impairment without dementia was seen in 37 of 48 patients (77%; 95% CI 65-89%). The cognitive disorders mainly concerned episodic memory (52%), psychomotor speed (44%), and executive function (37%), followed by language and visuoconstructive abilities. In a logistic regression analysis, Rankin score >1 at discharge and hemorrhage volume were the initial factors to be selected as a predictor of long-term dementia.

Conclusions: This single-center, cross-sectional study revealed that the prevalence of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia after ICH are high and are similar to those observed in cerebral infarct. Further longitudinal, prospective studies are required to assess accurately the prevalence, mechanisms and predictors of post-ICH dementia.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / diagnosis
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / epidemiology*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / psychology
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Cognition Disorders / diagnosis
  • Cognition Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Cognition Disorders / physiopathology
  • Cognition*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dementia / diagnosis
  • Dementia / epidemiology*
  • Dementia / psychology
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Executive Function
  • Female
  • France / epidemiology
  • Hospitals, University*
  • Humans
  • Language
  • Male
  • Memory
  • Middle Aged
  • Motor Activity
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors