B-1a cells are primarily thought of as natural antibody-producing cells. However, we now show that appropriate antigenic stimulation induces IgM and IgG B-1a antibody responses and long-lived T-independent antigen-specific B-1a memory that differs markedly from canonical B-2 humoral immunity. Thus, we show here that in the absence of inflammation, priming with glycolipid (FtL) from Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain induces splenic FtL-specific B-1a to mount dominant IgM and activation-induced cytidine deaminase-dependent IgG anti-FtL responses that occur within 3-5 d of FtL priming and fade within 1 wk to natural antibody levels that persist indefinitely in the absence of secondary FtL immunization. Equally surprising, FtL priming elicits long-term FtL-specific B-1a memory cells (IgM>>IgG) that migrate rapidly to the peritoneal cavity and persist there indefinitely, ready to respond to appropriately administrated secondary antigenic stimulation. Unlike B-2 responses, primary FtL-specific B-1a responses and establishment of persistent FtL-specific B-1a memory occur readily in the absence of adjuvants, IL-7, T cells, or germinal center support. However, in another marked departure from the mechanisms controlling B-2 memory responses, rechallenge with FtL in an inflammatory context is required to induce B-1a secondary antibody responses. These findings introduce previously unexplored vaccination strategies for pathogens that target the B-1a repertoire.