Integration of B cell responses through Toll-like receptors and antigen receptors

Nat Rev Immunol. 2012 Mar 16;12(4):282-94. doi: 10.1038/nri3190.


Unlike other immune cells, B cells express both an antigen-specific B cell receptor (BCR) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Dual BCR and TLR engagement can fine-tune functional B cell responses, directly linking cell-intrinsic innate and adaptive immune programmes. Although most data regarding B cell-specific functions of the TLR signalling pathway have been obtained in mice, the discovery of patients with a deficiency in this pathway has recently provided an insight into human B cell responses. Here, we highlight the importance of the integration of signalling pathways downstream of BCRs and TLRs in modulating B cell function, focusing when possible on B cell-intrinsic roles.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell / immunology*
  • Signal Transduction / immunology*
  • Toll-Like Receptors / immunology*


  • Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell
  • Toll-Like Receptors