A 12-item questionnaire was administered in late 1987-early 1988 to 445 medical students, 133 medical school applicants, and 111 nursing students to assess any differences in their attitudes toward medicine-related AIDS issues. These groups were also given a 31-item test of their knowledge of AIDS issues. Significant differences by levels of knowledge were obtained for eight of the 12 attitude items. For example, the more knowledgeable the student, the less likely he or she was to refuse treatment to an AIDS patient, to require mandatory AIDS testing of physicians, or to require medical personnel to wear gloves. The findings strongly suggest that education has an important role in changing attitudes about AIDS in a direction that fosters better health care for AIDS patients.