Protective effects of fermented Citrus unshiu peel extract against ultraviolet-A-induced photoageing in human dermal fibrobolasts

Phytother Res. 2012 Dec;26(12):1851-6. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4670. Epub 2012 Mar 15.


The aqueous extracts of Citrus unshiu peel containing flavonoid glycosides was used as co-substrate with Schizophyllum commune mycelia producing β-glucosidase and its biological activities were studied. β-glucosidase-produced S. commune mycelia converted the glycosides (narirutin and hesperidin) into aglycones (naringenin and hesperetin). The photoprotective potential of fermented C. unshiu peel extract with S. commune (S-CPE) was tested in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) exposed to UVA. It was revealed that S-CPE had an inhibitory effect on human interstitial collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-1) expression in UVA-irradiated HDFs. The treatment of UVA-irradiated HDFs with S-CPE resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the expression level of MMP-1 mRNA. The UVA irradiation raised the proportion of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) positive cells in comparison with the normal control group. The treatment of UVA-irradiated HDFs with S-CPE was shown to decrease the level of SA-β-gal (by approximately 45% at an S-CPE concentration 0.1%, w/v) compared with the UVA-irradiated HDFs. It was found that S-CPE containing hesperetin has notable collagen biosynthetic activity for fibroblasts, indicating that S-CPE can be promising cosmetic ingredients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cells, Cultured
  • Citrus / chemistry*
  • Collagen / biosynthesis
  • Dermis / cytology*
  • Dermis / radiation effects
  • Disaccharides / metabolism
  • Fermentation
  • Fibroblasts / drug effects*
  • Fibroblasts / radiation effects*
  • Flavanones / metabolism
  • Fruit / chemistry
  • Hesperidin / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Schizophyllum / growth & development
  • Schizophyllum / metabolism
  • Skin Aging / drug effects
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • beta-Galactosidase / metabolism


  • Disaccharides
  • Flavanones
  • Plant Extracts
  • narirutin
  • Collagen
  • Hesperidin
  • beta-Galactosidase
  • MMP1 protein, human
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
  • naringenin
  • hesperetin