Infant feeding bottle design, growth and behaviour: results from a randomised trial

BMC Res Notes. 2012 Mar 16:5:150. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-150.


Background: Whether the design of an anti-vacuum infant feeding bottle influences infant milk intake, growth or behavior is unknown, and was the subject of this randomized trial.

Subjects: 63 (36 male) healthy, exclusively formula-fed term infants.

Intervention: Randomisation to use Bottle A (n = 31), one-way air valve: Philips Avent) versus Bottle B (n = 32), internal venting system: Dr Browns). 74 breast-fed reference infants were recruited, with randomisation (n = 24) to bottle A (n = 11) or B (n = 13) if bottle-feeding was subsequently introduced. Randomisation: stratified by gender and parity; computer-based telephone randomisation by independent clinical trials unit.

Setting: Infant home.

Primary outcome measure: infant weight gain to 4 weeks.

Secondary outcomes: (i) milk intake (ii) infant behaviour measured at 2 weeks (validated 3-day diary); (iii) risk of infection; (iv) continuation of breastfeeding following introduction of mixed feeding.

Results: Number analysed for primary outcome: Bottle A n = 29, Bottle B n = 25.

Primary outcome: There was no significant difference in weight gain between randomised groups (0-4 weeks Bottle A 0.74 (SD 1.2) SDS versus bottle B 0.51 (0.39), mean difference 0.23 (95% CI -0.31 to 0.77).

Secondary outcomes: Infants using bottle A had significantly less reported fussing (mean 46 versus 74 minutes/day, p < 0.05) than those using bottle B. There was no significant difference in any other outcome measure. Breast-fed reference group: There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between breast-fed and formula fed infants. The likelyhood of breastfeeding at 3 months was not significantly different in infants subsequently randomised to bottle A or B.

Conclusion: Bottle design may have short-term effects on infant behaviour which merit further investigation. No significant effects were seen on milk intake or growth; confidence in these findings is limited by the small sample size and this needs confirmation in a larger study.

Trial registration: Clinical NCT00325208.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bottle Feeding / instrumentation*
  • Breast Feeding
  • Eating / physiology
  • Equipment Design
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant Behavior
  • Infant Formula*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Milk, Human*
  • Vacuum
  • Weight Gain

Associated data