Mitochondria perform diverse yet interconnected functions, producing ATP and many biosynthetic intermediates while also contributing to cellular stress responses such as autophagy and apoptosis. Mitochondria form a dynamic, interconnected network that is intimately integrated with other cellular compartments. In addition, mitochondrial functions extend beyond the boundaries of the cell and influence an organism's physiology by regulating communication between cells and tissues. It is therefore not surprising that mitochondrial dysfunction has emerged as a key factor in a myriad of diseases, including neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. We provide a current view of how mitochondrial functions impinge on health and disease.
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