Drinking deep seawater decreases serum total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic subjects

J Med Food. 2012 Jun;15(6):535-41. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2011.2007. Epub 2012 Mar 16.


Drinking deep seawater (DSW) with high levels of magnesium (Mg) decreased serum lipids in animal studies. Therefore the effects of drinking DSW on blood lipids and its antioxidant capacity in hypercholesterolemic subjects were investigated. DSW was first prepared by a process of filtration and reverse osmosis, and then the concentrated DSW with high levels of Mg was diluted as drinking DSW. Forty-two hypercholesterolemic volunteers were randomly divided into three groups: reverse osmotic (RO) water, DSW (Mg: 395 mg/L, hardness 1410 ppm), and magnesium-chloride fortified (MCF) water (Mg: 386 mg/L, hardness 1430 ppm). The subjects drank 1050 mL of water daily for 6 weeks, and blood samples were collected and analyzed on weeks 0, 3, and 6. Drinking DSW caused a decrease in blood total cholesterol levels and this effect was progressively enhanced with time. Serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was also decreased by DSW. Further, total cholesterol levels of subjects in the DSW group were significantly lower than those in the MCF water or RO water groups. Compared with week 0, the DSW group had higher blood Mg level on weeks 3 and 6, but the Mg levels were within the normal range in all three groups. DSW consumption also lowered thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values in serum. In conclusion, DSW was apparently effective in reducing blood total cholesterol and LDL-C, and also in decreasing lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anticholesteremic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Cholesterol / blood*
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood*
  • Female
  • Filtration
  • Humans
  • Hypercholesterolemia / blood
  • Hypercholesterolemia / drug therapy*
  • Magnesium / pharmacology*
  • Magnesium Chloride / pharmacology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osmosis
  • Seawater / chemistry*
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances / metabolism


  • Anticholesteremic Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
  • Magnesium Chloride
  • Cholesterol
  • Magnesium