Compartment syndrome is a rare but severe complication of lower extremity trauma. This article provides an extensive review of the literature, including incidence, physical examination findings, pathophysiology, compartment pressure evaluation, and surgical decompression techniques. Most of the recent compartment syndrome literature shows case reports of atypical causes of this limb-threatening disorder. Although the emphasis of this article is traumatic compartment syndrome, recent literature on chronic lower extremity compartment syndrome, secondary to exercise or activity, is also discussed.
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