Objective: One-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) are not indicated for sulcus fixation because of complications, such as uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome. Similar complications may also be observed with 3-piece lenses that have a square optic edge on the anterior surface. The objective of this study was to provide pathologic evidence of complications related to out-of-the-bag fixation of 1- or 3-piece hydrophobic acrylic IOLs with anterior and posterior square optic edges.
Design: Comparative case series with pathology.
Participants: A total of 661 pseudophakic cadaver eyes obtained from eye banks within the United States, implanted with different IOLs.
Methods: Anterior segment scanning of whole eyes with a high-frequency ultrasound system or high-resolution anterior segment magnetic resonance imaging, followed by gross examination. Selected eyes were processed for complete histopathologic analysis; some of them were explanted before histopathology to allow for direct light microscopic evaluation of the lenses.
Main outcome measures: Findings from imaging, gross, and histopathologic evaluation that could be related to out-of-the-bag fixation of the lenses.
Results: A total of 256 eyes were implanted with hydrophobic acrylic IOLs with anterior and posterior square optic edges; 18 of them exhibiting asymmetric or sulcus IOL fixation (six 1-piece and twelve 3-piece IOLs) underwent complete histopathologic evaluation and were compared with the contralateral eyes with symmetric in-the-bag IOL implantation. Pathologic findings were composed of IOL decentration and tilt, pigmentary dispersion within the anterior segment and on the IOL surface, iris transillumination defects, iris changes including vacuolization/disruption/loss of the pigmented layer, iris thinning, and iris atrophy, as well as synechiae and loop erosion in the case of 3-piece lenses. Findings were more significant in comparison with the control contralateral eyes and were particularly evident in relation to the sulcus-fixated haptic in the case of 1-piece lenses. The majority of the eyes with 3-piece lenses showed signs of complicated surgery.
Conclusions: This study provides pathologic correlation of complications that were clinically reported in the peer-reviewed literature in relation to sulcus fixation of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic IOLs. The eyes with 3-piece lenses generally exhibited evidence of complicated surgery; therefore, all pathologic findings in those cases may not be strictly attributed to the out-of-the-bag fixation.
Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.