Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder disproportionally affect HIV-positive women. Studies increasingly demonstrate that both conditions may predict poor HIV-related health outcomes and transmission-risk behaviors. This study analyzed data from a prevention-with-positives program to understand if socio-economic, behavioral, and health-related factors are associated with antiretroviral failure and HIV transmission-risk behaviors among 113 HIV-positive biological and transgender women. An affirmative answer to a simple screening question for recent trauma was significantly associated with both outcomes. Compared to participants without recent trauma, participants reporting recent trauma had over four-times the odds of antiretroviral failure (AOR 4.3; 95% CI 1.1-16.6; p = 0.04), and over three-times the odds of reporting sex with an HIV-negative or unknown serostatus partner (AOR 3.9; 95% CI 1.3-11.9; p = 0.02) and <100% condom use with these partners (AOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.5-13.3; p = 0.007). Screening for recent trauma in HIV-positive biological and transgender women identifies patients at high risk for poor health outcomes and HIV transmission-risk behavior.