The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activity to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and aqueous leaf extracts of Euphorbia prostrata Ait. (Euphorbiaceae) and synthesised Ag nanoparticles (NPs) using aqueous leaf extract against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann (Acarina: Ixodidae) and the haematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae). Synthesised Ag NPs were characterised with ultraviolet-vis (UV-vis) spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) support the biosynthesis of Ag NPs. Parasites were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesised silver NPs for 24 h. All extracts showed the maximum toxic effect on parasites; however, the highest mortality was found in the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and aqueous leaf extracts of E. prostrata and synthesised Ag NPs against the adult of H. bispinosa (LC(50)=45.24, 40.07, 21.91, 25.32, 19.30, 10.16 and 2.30 ppm; LC(90)=86.95, 88.66, 70.92, 83.22, 48.28, 70.27 and 8.28 ppm) and against H. maculata (LC(50)=39.37, 41.98, 19.92, 27. 93, 21.97, 9.79 and 2.55 ppm; LC(90)=89.44, 98.52, 76.59, 90.18, 55.07, 54.35 and 9.03 ppm), respectively. Mortality of 100% was found in synthesised Ag NPs at a concentration of 10 mg l(-1). UV-vis spectrograph of the colloidal solution of Ag NPs has been recorded as a function of time. The absorption spectrum of E. prostrata leaf extracts at different wavelengths ranging from 300 to 600 nm revealed a peak at 420 nm after 6 h. The FTIR spectra of Ag NPs exhibited prominent peaks at 3431; 1616; 1381; 1045; 818; 509; and 420 cm(-1). SEM analyses of the synthesised Ag NPs were rod shaped and measured 25-80 nm with an average size of 52.4 nm. The chemical composition of aqueous leaf extract was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major chemical constituent was identified as 2-phenylethanol. These results suggest that the leaf methanol, aqueous extracts of E. prostrata and green synthesis of Ag NPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of H. bispinosa and H. maculata. In addition, toxicity tests were conducted to analyse the toxicological effects of particle size on Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia, and the animal model test was evaluated against Bos indicus for 24-h treatment. No toxicity on daphnids and no adverse effects were noted on animals after exposure to solvent extracts and synthesised Ag NPs.
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