Male gender bias in autism and pediatric autoimmunity

Autism Res. 2012 Apr;5(2):77-83. doi: 10.1002/aur.1227. Epub 2012 Mar 17.


Male bias in both autism and pediatric autoimmune disease is thought to involve hormonal perturbations in pregnancy or early childhood in the context of genetic control. These early molecular events, at a time of rapid development, are intimately linked to concurrent development in the brain and immune system. It is suggested here that these early regulatory events may overlap between autism and autoimmunity in determining male sex bias and may provide evidence of an etiological link among autism, immune dysregulation, and autoimmune disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Autistic Disorder / epidemiology
  • Autistic Disorder / genetics
  • Autistic Disorder / immunology
  • Autoimmune Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Central Nervous System / growth & development
  • Child
  • Child Development Disorders, Pervasive / epidemiology*
  • Child Development Disorders, Pervasive / immunology*
  • Female
  • Genetic Diseases, X-Linked
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Sex Ratio
  • Testosterone / immunology


  • Testosterone