IAA, a naturally occurring auxin, is a simple signaling molecule that regulates many diverse steps of plant development. Auxin essentially coordinates plant development through transcriptional regulation. Auxin binds to TIR1/AFB nuclear receptors, which are F-box subunits of the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. The auxin signal is then modulated by the quantitative and qualitative responses of the Aux/IAA repressors and the auxin response factor (ARF) transcription factors. The specificity of the auxin-regulated gene expression profile is defined by several factors, such as the expression of these regulatory proteins, their post-transcriptional regulation, their stability and the affinity between these regulatory proteins. Auxin-binding protein 1 (ABP1) is a candidate protein for an auxin receptor that is implicated in non-transcriptional auxin signaling. ABP1 also affects TIR1/AFB-mediated auxin-responsive gene expression, implying that both the ABP1 and TIR1/AFB signaling machineries coordinately control auxin-mediated physiological events. Systematic approaches using the comprehensive mapping of the expression and interaction of signaling modules and computational modeling would be valuable for integrating our knowledge of auxin signals and responses.