Dynamic roles for NF-κB in HTLV-I and HIV-1 retroviral pathogenesis

Immunol Rev. 2012 Mar;246(1):286-310. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2012.01094.x.


Viruses and hosts are involved in a continuing 'arms race'. The body deploys multiple defenses; however, viruses utilize generally superior and more rapidly evolving tactics for negating host immune surveillance and viral clearance. In the case of the two major pathogenic human retroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and human T-lymphotrophic virus-I (HTLV-I), the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factor plays a key role in the host's anti-viral responses involving both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. Similarly, these retroviruses capably exploit NF-κB for their replication, spread, and pathogenic functions. In this review, we discuss the dynamic and intimate interplay that occurs between NF-κB and the HTLV-I and HIV-1 retroviral pathogens.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity
  • Animals
  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Gene Products, tax / metabolism
  • HIV Infections / etiology*
  • HIV Infections / immunology
  • HIV Infections / metabolism*
  • HIV-1*
  • HTLV-I Infections / etiology*
  • HTLV-I Infections / immunology
  • HTLV-I Infections / metabolism*
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus 1
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / metabolism
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism*
  • Retroviridae Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Viral Proteins / metabolism
  • Virus Latency


  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • Gene Products, tax
  • HBZ protein, human T-cell leukemia virus type I
  • NF-kappa B
  • Retroviridae Proteins
  • Viral Proteins