Conversion of human steroid 5β-reductase (AKR1D1) into 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase by single point mutation E120H: example of perfect enzyme engineering

J Biol Chem. 2012 May 11;287(20):16609-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.338780. Epub 2012 Mar 20.

Abstract

Human aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) and AKR1C enzymes are essential for bile acid biosynthesis and steroid hormone metabolism. AKR1D1 catalyzes the 5β-reduction of Δ(4)-3-ketosteroids, whereas AKR1C enzymes are hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs). These enzymes share high sequence identity and catalyze 4-pro-(R)-hydride transfer from NADPH to an electrophilic carbon but differ in that one residue in the conserved AKR catalytic tetrad, His(120) (AKR1D1 numbering), is substituted by a glutamate in AKR1D1. We find that the AKR1D1 E120H mutant abolishes 5β-reductase activity and introduces HSD activity. However, the E120H mutant unexpectedly favors dihydrosteroids with the 5α-configuration and, unlike most of the AKR1C enzymes, shows a dominant stereochemical preference to act as a 3β-HSD as opposed to a 3α-HSD. The catalytic efficiency achieved for 3β-HSD activity is higher than that observed for any AKR to date. High resolution crystal structures of the E120H mutant in complex with epiandrosterone, 5β-dihydrotestosterone, and Δ(4)-androstene-3,17-dione elucidated the structural basis for this functional change. The glutamate-histidine substitution prevents a 3-ketosteroid from penetrating the active site so that hydride transfer is directed toward the C3 carbonyl group rather than the Δ(4)-double bond and confers 3β-HSD activity on the 5β-reductase. Structures indicate that stereospecificity of HSD activity is achieved because the steroid flips over to present its α-face to the A-face of NADPH. This is in contrast to the AKR1C enzymes, which can invert stereochemistry when the steroid swings across the binding pocket. These studies show how a single point mutation in AKR1D1 can introduce HSD activity with unexpected configurational and stereochemical preference.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / chemistry*
  • 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / genetics
  • 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / metabolism
  • Amino Acid Substitution*
  • Humans
  • Mutation, Missense*
  • NADP / chemistry*
  • NADP / genetics
  • NADP / metabolism
  • Oxidoreductases / chemistry*
  • Oxidoreductases / genetics
  • Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • Point Mutation*
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Substrate Specificity / genetics

Substances

  • NADP
  • Oxidoreductases
  • 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases
  • 3-oxo-5 beta-steroid delta 4-dehydrogenase

Associated data

  • PDB/3UZW
  • PDB/3UZX
  • PDB/3UZY
  • PDB/3UZZ