Graves orbitopathy: correlation of CT and clinical findings

Radiology. 1990 Dec;177(3):675-82. doi: 10.1148/radiology.177.3.2243967.


The clinical and high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) findings in 71 patients (142 orbits) with Graves orbitopathy and 20 healthy patients (40 orbits) were retrospectively reviewed. The orbits with orbitopathy were subgrouped at clinical examination into those with (n = 18) and those without (n = 124) optic neuropathy. Mean extraocular muscle diameters and the calculated muscle diameter index were significantly increased in all orbits with ophthalmopathy, particularly in those with optic neuropathy. Graves orbitopathy affected the superior muscle group (63.4%) more than the medial (61.3%) or inferior (57%) recti. The most common pattern of muscle involvement involved all five measured extraocular muscles. Solitary muscle involvement most frequently involved the superior muscle group (6.3%). Significant enlargements of the retrobulbar optic nerve sheath and superior ophthalmic vein were noted only in orbits with optic neuropathy. Anterior displacement of the lacrimal gland at CT correlated with clinical palpability and occurred more frequently in patients with optic neuropathy. Severe apical crowding was the most sensitive indication of optic neuropathy at CT.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Graves Disease / diagnostic imaging*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oculomotor Muscles / diagnostic imaging
  • Optic Nerve / diagnostic imaging
  • Optic Nerve Diseases / diagnostic imaging
  • Orbit / diagnostic imaging*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed*