Increased caloric intake has been associated with increased risk for cancer of the large intestine. We studied caloric intake effect on tumor formation in Apc1638( N/+ ) mice, a preclinical model for human familial adenomatous polyposis. Mice were fed a controlled AIN-76A diet or a new Western-style diet (NWD). Intestinal tumor development was evaluated after 6 mo of feeding 1) AIN-76A diet (fed ad libitum) vs. AIN-76A (caloric intake reduced 30%); 2) NWD (fed ad libitum) vs. NWD (caloric intake reduced 30%); and 3) AIN-76A (fed ad libitum) vs. NWD (paired-fed with NWD providing equal caloric intakes to AIN-76A). Intestinal tumor incidences were 78-100% with intergroup variation P > 0.05; however, tumor multiplicity responded differently to dietary treatment: 1) Tumor multiplicity was unchanged after AIN-76A (caloric intake reduced 30% vs. mice fed AIN-76A ad libitum); 2) tumor multiplicity was unchanged after NWD (caloric intake reduced 30% vs. NWD ad libitum); and 3) tumor multiplicity increased 130% after NWD was paired-fed with the same caloric intake as mice fed AIN-76A ad libitum (P < 0.05). Body weights showed no association with tumor development. Findings indicated modified nutrients in NWD were mainly responsible for increased tumors in mice fed NWD vs. AIN-76A in this preclinical mouse model for human FAP.