Recent accumulating evidence suggests that the human immune system possesses a variety of innate receptors that recognize, distinguish, and respond to viral infections and to vaccination. These include Toll-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, Nod-like receptors and possibly AIM2-like receptors. However, the precise mechanisms by which these receptors exert their critical roles in the induction of virus-specific adaptive immune responses have not been fully elucidated. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the innate immune recognition of viruses and the differential connection to the adaptive immune responses induced by infection or vaccination, with a particular focus on the influenza virus.
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