The reemergence of dengue virus (DENV) infection has created a requirement for improved laboratory diagnostic procedures. In this study, DENV genome detection in urine was evaluated as a diagnostic method. The DENV genome was detected by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) in urine and serum of dengue patients. The detection rate of DENV genome in urine was 25% (2/8) on disease days 0 to 3 and 32% (7/22) on days 4 to 5. The rate was 50% or higher on days 6 to 16, 52% (11/21) on days 6 to 7, 78% (7/9) on days 8 to 9, 80% (4/5) on days 10 to 11, 50% (2/4) on days 12 to 13, and 60% (3/5) on days 14 to 16. The last positive urine sample was on day 16. The detection rates in serum were highest on days 0 to 3 and were greater than 50% on days 0 to 7. Detection rates decreased thereafter, and the last positive detection was on day 11. These results indicate that the time frames for positive detection differ between urine and serum samples, whereby detection rates of 50% or higher are evident between days 6 to 16 for urine samples and days 0 to 7 for serum samples. Nucleotide sequences of PCR products were identical between urine and serum samples. The detection of DENV genome in urine samples by real-time RT-PCR is useful to confirm DENV infection, particularly after viremia disappears.