Unravelling modifiers of breast and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: update on genetic modifiers

J Intern Med. 2012 Apr;271(4):331-43. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02502.x.


Pathogenic mutations in the tumour suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer increased risks for breast and ovarian cancer and account for approximately 15% of the excess familial risk of breast cancer amongst first-degree relatives of patients with breast cancer. There is considerable evidence indicating that these risks vary by other genetic and environmental factors clustering in families. In the past few years, based on the availability of genome-wide association data and samples from large collaborative studies, several common alleles have been found to modify breast or ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. These common alleles explain a small proportion of the genetic variability in breast or ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers, suggesting more modifiers remain to be identified. We review the so far identified genetic modifiers of breast and ovarian cancer risk and consider the implications for risk prediction. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers could be some of the first to benefit from clinical applications of common variants identified through genome-wide association studies. However, to be able to provide more individualized risk estimates, it will be important to understand how the associations vary with different tumour characteristics and their interactions with other genetic and environmental modifiers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Environment
  • Female
  • Genes, BRCA1*
  • Genes, BRCA2*
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Heterozygote*
  • Hormones / physiology
  • Humans
  • Mutation*
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Reproduction / physiology


  • Hormones